Posts tagged urban landscape

Intact wetland in Cahoon Meadow in Sequoia National Park, shown unaffected by erosion gully after efforts of full ecosystem restoration. NPS photo

A little over a month ago, I read about ‘rewilding’, a term used by one of our summer interns in a post titled, Rewilding the Los Angeles River. This discussion compelled me to explore the word further to ascertain other instances of where rewilding is occurring.

The dictionary defines rewilding as:

rewilding – verb
gerund or present participle: rewilding
1.
restore (an area of land) to its natural uncultivated state (used especially with reference to the reintroduction of species of wild animal that have been driven out or exterminated).

This type of environmental effort strategized and executed by activists, non-profits, and even major international conservation organizations all seek to remove human interventions that prohibit natural ecosystems – ranging in regions from the Yukon, to Europe, to the grasslands of Africa – from establishing and existing. Nationally, rewilding efforts tend to focus on grader scales, like our National Parks and waterways, each with goals to remove infrastructure like roads and engineered water ways to encourage the redevelopment of natural systems.

The efforts of these “rewilders” are brilliant and necessary for the purpose of recovering our environment, but focus upon broad efforts executed on a macro scale. This made me wonder if there were other alternative and  appropriate ways to weave this concept into the urban fabric on a more intimate level. While efforts to remove roads in National Parks may reopen natural ecosystems for larger fauna and flora to flourish, what if smaller installations popped up across city streets, onto walls, or even across rooftops? What if we could revitalize patches of native plant materials and smaller habitats on a more limited scale to help recreate habitat to give birds and pollinators respite where concrete and asphalt currently rules?

Chicago City Hall Green Roof. CC BY-SA 3.0 photo by Tony the Tiger.

While such efforts would not encourage large mammals to work their way back into cities to cohabitate within our concrete and asphalt jungles, I do wonder what kinds of effects these interventions could provide smaller critters that share our urban cores. I believe these efforts would have a  huge residual benefit for humans as well: offering respite on hot summer days, providing educational opportunities, resulting in a reduction of the heat island effect, and even create water  improvement opportunities where storm water could be passively treated (e.g. the Zev Yaroslavsky L.A. River Greenway Trail).

At this moment the team at AHBE is exploring this idea of rewinding from a smaller context. Focusing on a single parking space, we’re imagining turning such an urban space into a micro ecosystem, and investigating what kind of observable metrics that unfold across such a small area. What kind of opportunities would this open up if two parking spaces on a block were dedicated to such micro ecosystem? What about three?

Image by AHBE

These interventions intentionally designed to rewild our urban landscape – as opposed to the sort of secondary effect that street trees or community gardens traditionally provide – could be an effective additional mechanism to weave environmentally impactful changes into future green streets and other eco-conscious development, all with the purpose of designing the cities of tomorrow with a healthier environment for all living creatures.

Photo by Stumpy Sad; CC-BY-SA-2.0

Creative Commons photo by Stumpy Sad; CC-BY-SA-2.0

Do you remember the story in the New York Times about Jean J. Hsu, a woman who lost her class ring down a grate? It was a rather funny tale, one documenting how Ms. Hsu navigated New York City’s labyrinth of red tape to retrieve her lost jewelry from the bowels of a busy downtown corridor.

While walking through DTLA or through the beautiful City of Glendora downtown corridor, I’ve noticed all sorts of different types of tree grates. It has a role as one of today’s favorite urban landscape features, but times are a changing. There are all sorts of stories that you can muster up about why or why not a tree grate was removed: it was stolen, the tree outgrew the space, the storefront had it removed.

Who needs a tree when extra asphalt is on hand to fill a previous tree well?

Who needs a tree when extra asphalt is on hand to fill a previous tree well? Photo by Kathy Rudnyk.

I’ve noticed some sidewalks interrupted by empty square cutouts filled with compacted soil or asphalt, like the one pictured here on the right. I sometimes like to imagine buried treasure awaiting to be found underneath. But more so, I’d prefer such an empty space being occupied again with a thriving tree, one that could offer ample shade from the glaring glass curtain walls along 7th Street, provide a respite for urban birds, or offer a great spot for tourists to take a photo.

The City of Glendora’s downtown corridor – Glendora Avenue – is lined with meticulously clipped Ficus microcarpa nitida, ‘Green Gem’ (Green Gem Indian Laurel Fig) pruned into the shape of gumdrops. These trees were made famous by a commercial for Southern California’s fast food chain, Jack in the Box.

Most of the tree grates on this stretch of Glendora Avenue have been since removed, with only two tree grates remaining. The two trees surrounded by tree grates are much smaller in size than the rest of sculptured trees. Some creative tactics were taken by shopkeepers to keep the area tidy and to prevent dogs from doing their business along the double row of trunks. Now poinsettias line the boxes (just in time for the holidays!).

America is not alone in its fetish for tree grates. In Spain, I fell into a few missing tree grates spaces while admiring the beautiful architecture of the country. Let me tell you, those empty spaces once occupied by a tree grate were rather deep; their planting specs must call for a much deeper tree well than the American version!

Gumdrop trees lit up for the annual Holiday Stroll on Glendora Avenue in Glendora

Gumdrop trees lit up for the annual Holiday Stroll on Glendora Avenue in Glendora. Photo by Kathy Rudnyk.

Maybe it is time we question why even have tree grates in the first place? Other questions floating in my head:

* Is the lack of tree care, alongside their respective tree grates, just another form of “demolition by neglect”? Perhaps, the tree grate is a much more of beautiful ornament than the tree it was originally intended for – something I have seen in NYC with their treasured and historical art deco tree grates. Maybe the expense went into buying the best of the best tree grates, but a low bid or a slashed budget made getting the best tree impossible.

* Maybe the tree and its protective tree grate are considered an annoyance now? Maybe for some people a tree might be considered a hindrance, limiting access from car to building or onto a train platform.

* Why not utilize plants around a tree rather than selecting an expensive tree grate. At a cost of approximately $2,000 a piece, these grates were designed to protect the tree’s apron of roots. But when you walk through a forest, you might observe small shrubs or perennials naturally growing around trees in the wild. Why not recreate the same natural relationship in an urban setting? It would enhance the urban landscape and provide even more natural curiosity. 

* Does every city street need to look like a New York City sidewalk?

filled-tree-grate

Photo by Kathy Rudnyk.

But there are some really good reasons for tree grates. First, in urban areas with a high density of people who park close to trees or walk by one, these grates keep the surrounding soil around the tree from being compacted. Besides lack of water, pests/disease, or pruning at the wrong times, compacted soil is a major reason why trees suffer in urban settings. Tree grates also shade the soil over the tree’s roots, slowing down the evaporation of the water around the tree. And in a drought like we’re experiencing now, that is a definite benefit.

Tree grates can be rather appealing aesthetically . Their ornate traditional designs are quite adaptable, coming in all sorts of shapes. Some even have lights built right into the design. Most are fabricated with metal, but maybe in the future tree grates will be printed using a 3-D printer and laser cutters, using other types of materials to add to curb appeal. What if grates were made from silicone, plastic, recycled tires, and other renewable resources like bamboo or cork? Or maybe they could light up when stepped upon. One wonders due to the fact tree grates have so long gone unchanged, their utility for tree and shrub health is now forgotten or overlooked. Perhaps tree grates need a Project Runway-style redesign representing the times of today. Or maybe it’s just time to say farewell, noting they’re a feature of yesterday?

Expanded tree well on Glendora Avenue in Glendora covered with Astroturf. Photo by Kathy Rudnyk.

Expanded tree well on Glendora Avenue in Glendora covered with Astroturf. Photo by Kathy Rudnyk.

Cities are already challenging themselves to use alternatives, including artificial grass, art, and pavers instead of tree grates. If you lose a piece of fine jewelry – like Jean J. Hsu’s class ring from the aforementioned story above – recovering it will be much easier when mulch, ground cover, shrubs, or artificial turf surrounds the tree. Even in Manhattan, the city now shuns using tree grates, replacing them with more advantageous methods of protecting valuable urban trees.

Well-designed tree grates permit water, air, debris, and the occasional unfortunate class ring through its grill. But the space between the tree grate and the soil should be periodically cleaned; if an excess of debris gets trapped between these sections, it can  prevent air and water from entering the basin or result in soil building up around the trunk, both causing undue harm to the tree.

A Ficus tree trunk that grew way beyond the diameter of the tree grate.

A Ficus tree trunk that grew way beyond the diameter of the tree grate. Photo by Kathy Rudnyk.

Most of the time when tree grates are installed, they’ll never be moved again. But occasionally a tree grow will outgrow its once spacious ring, requiring it be removed or entirely replaced. Tree roots will grows upward if there is insufficient room for it to grow outward. Everyone in Los Angeles has seen a sidewalk like this at one time or another. Unless there is an effective root barrier in place or regular root pruning, trees without enough space to grow can push a sidewalk upward, causing a hazardous feature. Occasionally the affected sidewalk area is cut out and expanded, with the tree grate removed to expose the surrounding soil to promote the tree’s health.

Professor of Environmental Horticulture Dr. Edward F. Gilman of University of Florida, Gainesville offers some excellent advice: Tree grates should be considered a short term solution lasting about 15 years. Dr. Gilman advises widening sidewalk spaces around trees, planting clusters of trees, channeling roots to grow toward soil, using alternative material around the tree and gravel as a subsurface rather than compacted soil or other types of materials. He believes planting the tree at least 2 feet away from the sidewalk is beneficial, alongside planting the tree away from the curb, or elevating the sidewalk around the plantings to give tree roots a place to grow. If the space/lot permits, Dr. Gilman believes planting trees in groups is superior to a lone specimen; trees have been observed to work together to help improve surviving the numerous challenges in an urban environment.

Tree well on Glendora Avenue in Glendora, filled with mulch, art, and a few small plants.

Tree well on Glendora Avenue in Glendora, filled with mulch, art, and a few small plants. Photo by Kathy Rudnyk.

It can be odd walking down the street and noticing the trunk of a single palm tree and an evergreen tree shoved into a tree grate. It seems a better idea to plant a natural buffer of spiky-looking plants to help encourage pedestrians to walk around rather than over the space. Consider working deterrents like Dietes ‘NoLa’ (Katrina™ African Iris) or Dianella ‘DR5000’ (Little Rev Flax Lily). 7th Street in Downtown Los Angeles on 7th Street is ripe for such a display of plants and trees living harmoniously together. The streetscape already offers a wide sidewalk, with exposed brickwork that could be quickly refilled with trees and shrubs. More could be done to create a beautiful, urban enriching botanical buffer, just ripe for pollinators. I suspect that property values would also rise, and such urban flora would encourage more people to traverse on the plant-lined side of the street versus the opposite lined with brightly lit stores. Already I’ve noticed traveling on the side of the street with Whole Foods because I’m naturally drawn to their lovely basins filled with trees and Dietes ‘NoLa’ (Katrina™ African Iris), contrasting the bleak parking garage across the street devoid of any plantings.

Tree grates are amazing urban accessories, but a landscaping tool due for a change. I am sure landscape and urban designers can find great uses for tree grates, as well as exploring what we can do to make our shrinking urban planting spaces last longer than ever by incorporating plants, trees, shrubs, art, rainwater runoff, and most importantly, our imaginations. Just remember, the next time you see a tree grate, somewhere underneath may be a ring that will never again reunite with its rightful owner. All I know is I’m not sure who I would call if my ring fell through a tree grate here in Downtown Los Angeles…

 

I often look forward to the long drive between Los Angeles and the Bay Area as an opportunity to catch up with podcasts (in this case, a trek up to the wooded banana belt of Santa Cruz and then to Oakland, a trip in support of my wife’s cook book tour). Most people hate the long drive northward and back, but since I work at home and do not commute regularly, silence is my usual companion during the work week. The 400 miles journey up the interstate spine of California permits me the opportunity to sit back and enjoy several podcasts during the drive, ranging from the archetypal This American Life to the body hacking tips of Ben Greenfield Fitness, to the geeky-fun discussions of sci-fi and fantasy fiction explored by Imaginary Worlds. The quick twitch muscles attuned to email and message notifications turned off, much enjoyment is found just driving and listening.

Unpleasant Design, published by G.L.O.R.I.A.

Unpleasant Design, published by G.L.O.R.I.A.

A poster designed to spread awareness of the urban homeless population by Seattle-based, Peace for the Streets by Kids from the Streets.

A poster designed to spread awareness of the urban homeless population by Seattle-based,
Peace for the Streets by Kids from the Streets.

It was during a recent episode of 99% Invisible, a 30 minute show dedicated to “the unnoticed architecture and design that shape our world”, that my ears perked up. The episode, Unpleasant Design & Hostile Urban Architecture, begins with the story of a popular convenience store in Oakland that began playing loud classical music to disperse loitering teenagers from their store front. It’s a tactic which has gone national, proving an effective aural deterrent, tapping into the neurobiological responses of younger minds to avoid the displeasurable sounds of music that isn’t current or cool.

Much of what we discuss here at AHBE Lab is aimed to connect, rather than disconnect citizens with their landscape and community. This flip-side proved fascinating and horrifying at once.

LISTEN: Host and producer Roman Mars spoke with Selena Savić, co-editor of the book Unpleasant Design.

In these cases of “classical repulsion“, the deterrent isn’t so unpleasant – arguably the positives outweigh the negatives at a mild cost to the community (Handel’s compositions may seem uncool to the discerning ears of teens, but few would call it truly unpleasant). The episode hosted by Roman Mars continues on with further examples of what is commonly referred to as unpleasant design – structural elements in public spaces used to deter certain behaviors, including but not limited to: sitting, sleeping, and congregation for extended periods. It’s a topic Yiran touched upon earlier this year: Designed in Distrust: Peering Over the Invisible Wall of Homelessness.

A mortared cobble bed in front a gym in Downtown Los Angeles along 6th street designed to deter homeless from sleeping in front of the entry. Photo by Yiran Wang.

A mortared cobble bed in front a gym in Downtown Los Angeles, designed to deter homeless from sleeping in front of the entry. Photo by Yiran Wang.

Increasingly developers, architects, and city planners are designing cities to become exclusive, rather than inclusive experiences, antithetical to the higher aspirations of any space. Or as Walt Disney once professed, “You can design and create, and build the most wonderful place in the world. But it takes people to make the dream a reality”. These architectural and infrastructure features seem drawn from a dystopian vision where design is used as an effective barrier between populations and community. No, not science fiction, but well established reality.

Exclusionary design is worse than no design at all. Physical or invisibly overt, unpleasant design and hostile urban architecture are symptoms rather than a cure of a society’s shortcomings, an implementation which breaks the trust between a city and its citizens one bench at a time. Let’s hope Los Angeles and other metropolitan areas aim to treat the source of crime and homelessness rather than taking away the most basic human rights to sit, sleep, and gather…one bench at a time.